Articles | Volume 12, issue 2
Research article 20 Dec 2021
Research article | 20 Dec 2021
Precise mathematical model for the ratchet tooth root bending stress
Chao Liu et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Mechanisms and Robotics | Techniques and Approaches: Mathematical Modeling and AnalysisKinematic and dynamic analysis of an omnidirectional mobile platform driven by a spherical wheelKinematic and dynamic accuracy of spherical mechanismsDesign and analysis of a six-wheeled companion robot with mechanical obstacle-overcoming adaptivitySwing control for a three-link brachiation robot based on sliding-mode control on irregularly distributed barsAnalysis and compensation control of passive rotation on a 6-DOF electrically driven Stewart platformForce analysis of minimal self-adaptive fingers using variations of four-bar linkagesKinematics decoupling analysis of a hyper-redundant manipulator driven by cablesResearch on a cascade model synthesis with the use of classical and non-classical methods in the context of new piezoelectric stack applicationsA toy-inspired kirigami pattern and its kinematic performance by applying mechanisms and machine theoryAnalytical solution to contact characteristics for a variable hyperbolic circular-arc-tooth-trace cylindrical gearThe approximate calculation of the natural frequencies of a Stockbridge type vibration damper and analysis of natural frequencies' sensitivity to the structural parametersDynamic modeling and vibration analysis of a cracked 3K-II planetary gear set for fault detectionKinematics analysis of a four-legged heavy-duty robot with a force–position hybrid control servo actuator in a parallel-executed cylinder systemSemi-numerical analysis of a two-stage series composite planetary transmission considering incremental harmonic balance and multi-scale perturbation methodsAn innovative equivalent kinematic model of the human upper limb to improve the trajectory planning of exoskeleton rehabilitation robotsDesign and evaluation of a novel upper limb rehabilitation robot with space training based on an end effectorVibroacoustic characteristics analysis of a planetary gear reducer considering the exterior housing structureProgramming piston displacements for constant flow rate piston pumps with trigonometric transition functionsCenter-point steering analysis of tracked omni-vehicles based on skid conditionsPerformance analysis of an electro-hydrostatic actuator with high-pressure load sensing based on fuzzy PIDLagrange-method-based dynamic analysis of multi-stage planetary roller screw mechanismDesign and performance analysis of wave linear generator with parallel mechanismA novel algorithm by combining nonlinear workspace partition with neural networks for solving the inverse kinematics problem of redundant manipulatorsA real-time inverse kinematics solution based on joint perturbation for redundant manipulatorsA new method for isomorphism identification of planetary gear trainsAnalysis and control of state jump in space deployable structures under alternating temperature loadsDesign and analysis of a novel deployable hexagonal prism module for parabolic cylinder antennaMechanism analysis of ancient Chinese crossbowsTraditional Chinese Yuekou locksSingularity and branch identification of a 2 degree-of-freedom (DOF) seven-bar spherical parallel manipulatorA new hand rehabilitation system based on the cable-driven mechanism and dielectric elastomer actuatorSynthesis of the base curves for n-lobed noncircular bevel gearsDynamic parameters identification of a haptic interface for a helicopter flight simulatorResearch on a medium-tracked omni-vehicleArchitectural singularities of parallel mechanisms with prismatic joints due to special designs of platform shapesResearch on Influence of Joint Clearance on Precision of 3-TPT Parallel RobotCompact design of a novel precise cable drive mechanism with high precision and large torque-to-weight ratioMechanism design and analysis of a proposed wheelchair-exoskeleton hybrid robot for assisting human movementKinematic analysis and optimization of a planar parallel compliant mechanism for self-alignment knee exoskeletonHysteresis analysis of a notched continuum manipulator driven by tendonWorm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systemsStructural analysis of traditional Chinese hidden-keyhole padlocksPa2 kinematic bond in translational parallel manipulatorsContinuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped RobotA modified pseudo-rigid-body modeling approach for compliant mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexuresDevelopment of a parallel robotic system for transperineal biopsy of the prostateA novel 2-DOF planar translational mechanism composed by scissor-like elementsReduced inertial parameters in system of one degree of freedom obtained by Eksergian's methodDesign and analysis of symmetric and compact 2R1T (in-plane 3-DOC) flexure parallel mechanismsDesign and analysis of a bio-inspired module-based robotic arm
Luis Daniel Filomeno Amador and Eduardo Castillo Castañeda
Mech. Sci., 13, 31–39,Short summary
In mobile robot development, the designer focuses on the novelty of the final element, leaving out the mobile platform evolution; the chief problem with wheeled mobile robots is the restricted movement in the workspace due to the necessity for the system's reorientation. Our goal is to realize a wheeled mobile robotic system that can generate an omnidirectional displacement without the need to redirect the wheels, thus guaranteeing continuous operation.
Dinh Tung Vo, Sergey Kheylo, and Van Quoc Nguyen
Mech. Sci., 13, 23–30,Short summary
The proposed approach to assessing the kinematic accuracy allows one to determine the deviations in the output link using the theory of accuracy. This allows one to determine the deviations in the output link at any point in the working area and propose constructive solutions for its compensation. This approach to determining the positioning error makes it possible to calculate the deviations in the output link for similar mechanisms of a parallel structure.
Zhen Song, Zirong Luo, Guowu Wei, and Jianzhong Shang
Mech. Sci., 12, 1115–1136,Short summary
It is more efficient and safe to use a sub robot to replace the mother robot to perform space exploration tasks full of challenges. A novel three-rocker-arm six-wheeled robot with adaptive obstacle-crossing capability was designed to form a sub-parent exploration system with a large robot and to perform exploration tasks. A prototype of the robot is developed, and the experiment results show that the robot can maintain stability in rugged terrain and has excellent ability to cross obstacles.
Zhiguo Lu, Guoshuai Liu, Haibin Zhao, Ruchao Wang, and Chong Liu
Mech. Sci., 12, 1073–1081,Short summary
This paper designs a type of bionic-gibbon robot with three links and two grippers. We apply the sliding-mode control to the swing motion of the robot. The bionic-gibbon robot can complete continuous brachiation motion on the irregularly distributed bars. Besides, compared with the two-link structure, the three-link structure introduced in this paper improves the swing efficiency and increases the swing height of the robot.
Qitao Huang, Peng Wang, Bowen Li, and Qingjun Yang
Mech. Sci., 12, 1027–1036,Short summary
The electrically driven Stewart platform (EDSP) is used widely. However, the passive rotation (PR) on driven branch chains can generate posture error on the end effector. Compensation control strategy is designed to avoid effects of PR on posture accuracy of the 6-DOF (degrees of freedom) EDSP based on calculation and analysis. The validity of analysis and the effectiveness of the compensation method used to improving posture accuracy are proven by simulation and experiments on a 6-DOF EDSP.
Fadi Nassar and Lionel Birglen
Mech. Sci., 12, 1037–1049,Short summary
This paper presents the force analysis and optimization of four versions of self-adaptive robotic fingers based on the simplest closed-loop 1 degree-of-freedom mechanism possible, namely the four-bar linkage. Two of these versions include prismatic joints. It was concluded that simpler designs in adaptive fingers do not necessarily mean weaker performances since the results are at least comparable with other designs with more degrees of freedom.
Lei Zhang, Guangyao Ouyang, and Zhaocai Du
Mech. Sci., 12, 1017–1026,Short summary
To solve the kinematics mapping problem for the joint space and the drive space of a hyper-redundant manipulator based on flexible cable actuation, which is the key for hyper-redundant manipulators to move strictly according to trajectory planning and avoid obstacles, a decoupling method for kinematics analyses of the flexible cable actuation space and the joint rotation space was proposed.
Jacek Harazin and Andrzej Wróbel
Mech. Sci., 12, 959–969,Short summary
This article contains new propositions for modelling piezoelectric stack models by using existing classical and non-classical methods with the aim of improving piezoelectric stack capabilities. Polynomial chain fractioning is used to obtain a mechanical model with a cascade structure. To verify model output frequencies and amplitudes, edge graphs and structural numbers are used. With the help of Kelvin–Voigt, Mason and Maxwell slip models, an electromechanical model solutions are proposed.
Weiwei Lin, Kunjing Chen, Yuan Gao, Aihua Chen, Fufu Yang, and Huijuan Feng
Mech. Sci., 12, 933–943,Short summary
The problem of inverse folding, determining the distribution of creases according to the desired shape, requires luck and artist inspiration, and it is a very complicated process. Here, we try to solve an inverse folding problem about a folding toy and get some kirigami patterns. It opens up a new way to solve the problem and can also help students understand the theory of mechanisms and machines.
Rui Guo, Yongqiao Wei, Yongping Liu, Dawei Li, Dong Yang, and Gang Zhao
Mech. Sci., 12, 923–932,Short summary
The variable hyperbolic circular-arc-tooth-trace (VH-CATT) cylindrical gear is a new type of gear. In order to research the contact characteristics of the VH-CATT cylindrical gear, tooth surface mathematical models of this kind of gear pair are derived based on the forming principle of the rotating double-edged cutting method with great cutter head in this regard.
Qing Yin, Jianli Zhao, Yong Liu, and Yisheng Zhang
Mech. Sci., 12, 863–873,Short summary
The approximate calculation of a Stockbridge type damper's natural frequencies and its sensitivity were studied. The low-order frequency is highly sensitive to the cable's length, moderately sensitive to the damper's mass, and slightly sensitive to the eccentric distance and the damper's gyration radius. The high-order frequency is highly sensitive to the cable's length and the damper's gyration radius, moderately sensitive to the damper's mass, and slightly sensitive to the eccentric distance.
Meng Sang, Kang Huang, Yangshou Xiong, Guangzhi Han, and Zhenbang Cheng
Mech. Sci., 12, 847–861,Short summary
Few pieces of literature could be found on vibration investigations of the 3K planetary gear set, a basic planetary drive structure with a more compact structure and wider transmission ratio range than the 2K-H. In this paper, the features of casing vibration and output torsional vibration are analyzed by establishing a dynamics model of a 3K-II gearbox. The advantages and disadvantages of these two vibration signals as a basis for 3K planetary gear system fault diagnosis are also compared.
Guiying Wang, Xigui Wang, Yongmei Wang, and Baixue Fu
Mech. Sci., 12, 735–749,Short summary
An electrohydraulic servo four-legged heavy-duty (FLHD) robot has been designed and developed. An integration layout cylinder design scheme for a non-lightweight hydraulic servo four-legged robot with high loads and torque of the hip joint is proposed, and the mathematical element analysis model for a parallel-executed cylinder (PEC) system is derived. A design idea of a force–position hybrid control scheme is determined for the PEC.
Xigui Wang, Siyuan An, Yongmei Wang, Jiafu Ruan, and Baixue Fu
Mech. Sci., 12, 701–714,Short summary
A comparison between the results obtained by the MsP method and the numerical integration method proves that the former is ideal and credible in most regions. The effects of the time-varying parameters and the nonlinear deenthing caused by the gear teeth clearance on the amplitude–frequency characteristics of TsSCS components are studied. This is a part of research on transmission gears' thermal deformation for application in warship power rear drive systems.
Qiaolian Xie, Qiaoling Meng, Qingxin Zeng, Hongliu Yu, and Zhijia Shen
Mech. Sci., 12, 661–675,Short summary
This paper proposes a new 13 degrees of freedom equivalent kinematic model for the human upper limb and fully considers the movement characteristics of human upper limbs in anatomy. The proposed model can be utilized to analyze the human upper limb workspace and joint motions. Furthermore, the model can effectively evaluate the existing upper limb exoskeleton and provide suggestions for structural improvements in line with human motion.
Qiaoling Meng, Zongqi Jiao, Hongliu Yu, and Weisheng Zhang
Mech. Sci., 12, 639–648,Short summary
This paper proposes a novel, 4 degrees of freedom, end-effector-based upper limb rehabilitation robot with space training. The robot can assist the human upper limb in performing rehabilitation training of the shoulder flexion/extension and adduction/abduction and elbow flexion/extension. Different from the desktop-type end-effector-based robot, the proposed robot can provide a wide range of shoulder flexion/extension training and cover the range of movement of the human upper limb.
Lihong Jin, Junpeng Shao, Xigui Wang, Yongmei Wang, and Baixue Fu
Mech. Sci., 12, 539–557,Short summary
This study performs an analytical study of the modal and natural frequencies and the vibration types of each order of the gearbox housing structure of a planetary gear reducer (PGR). An optimal housing structure for a PGR with lower acoustic vibrations is designed, and a composite housing structure with damping vibration attenuation and acoustic absorption is proposed. The radiation acoustic characteristics without acoustic protection and damping materials are analyzed.
Zhongxu Tian and Xingxing Lin
Mech. Sci., 12, 559–571,Short summary
An analytical method for programming piston displacements for constant flow rate piston pumps is presented. The results show that, with the given transition functions, cam profiles can be designed analytically with parameterized forms, and the maximum accelerations of the pistons are determined by the width of the transition domain and the rotational velocities of the cams, which will affect contact forces between cams and followers.
Yuan Fang, Yunan Zhang, Yinghui Shang, Tao Huang, and Mengfei Yan
Mech. Sci., 12, 511–527,Short summary
The center-point steering theory of a traditional tracked vehicle cannot be directly applied to a tracked omni-robot. In this study, for the three typical layout types, rectangular, hybrid, and centripetal, the steady center-point steering motion of a tracked omni-vehicle under skid conditions is analyzed and a correction model is investigated. The correction model can correct the angular velocity and time of the vehicle, as well as give the relationship between the design parameters.
Hong Zhang, Lan Ding, Wentao Zhang, and Chenchen Li
Mech. Sci., 12, 529–537,
Xin Li, Geng Liu, Xiaojun Fu, and Shangjun Ma
Mech. Sci., 12, 471–478,
Tao Yao, Yulong Wang, Zhihua Wang, and Can Qin
Mech. Sci., 12, 405–417,Short summary
A wave energy converter has been investigated, which can convert the absorbed wave energy into electrical energy. Through electromagnetic numerical simulations, the influences of linear generator parameters such as magnetization mode, air gap, and yoke shape on electromagnetic performance were evaluated. Numerical results show axial magnetization and Halbach magnet array can increase magnetic flux intensity more than the radial mode. The conversion rate of wave energy is derived.
Hui Dong, Chen Li, Wentao Wu, Ligang Yao, and Hao Sun
Mech. Sci., 12, 259–267,
Qinhuan Xu and Qiang Zhan
Mech. Sci., 12, 221–235,
Wei Sun, Ronghe Li, Jianyi Kong, and Anming Li
Mech. Sci., 12, 193–202,
Congcong Chen, Tuanjie Li, Yaqiong Tang, and Zuowei Wang
Mech. Sci., 12, 59–67,
Xiaofei Ma, Yang Li, Tuanjie Li, Hangjia Dong, Dawei Wang, and Juntao Zhu
Mech. Sci., 12, 9–18,
Jie Dong, Kan Shi, Yang Zhang, Tenigeer, and Yan'An Yao
Mech. Sci., 11, 437–445,
Yang Zhang and Kuo-Hung Hsiao
Mech. Sci., 11, 411–423,Short summary
Yuekou locks are the favorites of antique collectors and have six main types including combination locks, regular locks, pull-back locks, maze locks, multi-stage locks, and hidden-keyhole locks. The crafting of Yuekou locks is conducted in four stages: material preparation, molding, shaping, and assembling. This work introduces the historical development of Yuekou locks, summarizes the verbatim interviews, explores the production of Yuekou locks, and analyzes the structures of Yuekou locks.
Liangyi Nie, Huafeng Ding, Andrés Kecskeméthy, Jinqiang Gan, Jun Wang, and Kwun-lon Ting
Mech. Sci., 11, 381–393,Short summary
The main contribution of this paper is to present a kind of 2 DOF seven-bar SPM containing two five-bar spherical loops, which has the advantages of high reaction speed, accuracy rating, and rigidity. And based on the unusual actuated choices and symmetrical loop structure, an approach is provided to identify singularities and branches of this kind of 2 DOF seven-bar SPM. The proposed method is visual and offers geometric insights into understanding the formation of mobility using branch graphs.
Heba Amin, Samy F. M. Assal, and Hiroyasu Iwata
Mech. Sci., 11, 357–369,Short summary
The increasing number of patients with hand disabilities after strokes or peripheral nerve injuries necessitates the continuous development of rehabilitation system devices to accelerate muscle recovery and to help patients regain the motor functions of their hands. This paper introduces the design of a hand rehabilitation system for patients who have a solitary impairment of their hand extension. The system was designed to be portable, simple, and cheap.
Kan Shi, Yan'an Yao, and Shuai Lin
Mech. Sci., 11, 251–256,
Dingxuan Zhao, Jianyao Zhang, Giuseppe Carbone, Haojie Yang, Tao Ni, and Shuangji Yao
Mech. Sci., 11, 193–204,Short summary
In helicopter flight simulators, the joystick is a key element, which is used to achieving a reliable helicopter driving while providing a force feedback feeling. In the flight control process, the current force of the haptic interface needs to be used as the simulation calculation of the feedback force. This paper proposes a different strategy aiming at avoiding the use of an expansive and complex force/torque sensor.
Yuan Fang, Yunan Zhang, Nianyu Li, and Yinghui Shang
Mech. Sci., 11, 137–152,
Xiaoyong Wu and Shaoping Bai
Mech. Sci., 10, 449–464,
Chunxia Zhu and Zhiyu Zhao
Mech. Sci., 10, 287–298,Short summary
the joint clearance error of the component is an important component for the structural parameter errors. In order to improve the accuracy of such mechanism, the possible errors were evaluated and on-line error compensation was carried out by control system for the purpose of accuracy machining. The error model of the working accuracy of the parallel mechanism was established in this paper.
Xin Xie, Xianliang Jiang, Shixun Fan, and Dapeng Fan
Mech. Sci., 10, 47–56,Short summary
Since the common layout of Precise cable drive, Single-Input Single-Output (SISO) spur gear configuration, suffers from low torque-to-weight ratio and loose structure, this paper proposes a novel transmission configuration. It combines the advantages of Multiple-Input Single-Output (MISO) configuration and bevel gear configuration. The proposed technologies could have strong technological implications in some special applications such as stabilized sighting system or infrared imaging seeker.
Zhibin Song, Chuanyin Tian, and Jian S. Dai
Mech. Sci., 10, 11–24,
Yijun Niu, Zhibin Song, and Jiansheng Dai
Mech. Sci., 9, 405–416,Short summary
In rehabilitation, the widely existing misalignment between human limb and exoskeleton causes discomfort even danger. To alleviate the misalignment in lower extremity exoskeleton, this study proposes a compliant parallel mechanism, which has the potential to automatically change its configuration to make exoskeleton knee joint fit the human joint movements. And the self-alignment performance of the mechanism is validated via conducting a series of experiments under different working conditions.
Hong-Jian Yu, Wen-Long Yang, Zheng-Xin Yang, Wei Dong, Zhi-Jiang Du, and Zhi-Yuan Yan
Mech. Sci., 9, 211–219,
Seong Han Kim
Mech. Sci., 9, 201–210,Short summary
This study proposes a worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems. Geometrical and tribological analyses were performed and in order for validation of the model, a worm gear was prepared and the efficiency of the worm gear was predicted by the model. As the final procedure of the study, a worm gear efficiency measurement system was set and the efficiency of the worm gear was measured and the results were compared with the predicted result.
Mech. Sci., 9, 189–199,Short summary
Hidden-keyhole padlocks are reconfigurable mechanisms and a category of ancient Chinese locks. This work presents a useful procedure to indicate and analyze the topology variabilities of hidden-keyhole padlocks. The variable chains of hidden-keyhole padlocks are presented by using the representation of kinematic pairs, from which all topology variabilities of padlocks in the operation are derived. Four main types of hidden-keyhole padlocks are provided as examples to illustrate the procedure.
Alfonso Hernández, Erik Macho, Mónica Urízar, Víctor Petuya, and Zhen Zhang
Mech. Sci., 9, 25–39,Short summary
In this paper the potentiality of using Pa2 joints for designing robots with parallel structure and translational motion is studied. As the equations governing its motion are simpler than those of other structures, the control system of the robot is more efficient and reliable. The structure proposed has high stiffness improving the accuracy of its movements.
Chunsong Zhang and Jian S. Dai
Mech. Sci., 9, 1–14,Short summary
A continuous static gait of a quadruped robot benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed.
Pengbo Liu and Peng Yan
Mech. Sci., 8, 359–368,Short summary
In the present paper, we investigate a modified pseudo-rigid-body (MPRB) modeling approach for compliant mechanisms with fixed-guided beam flexures by considering the load-dependent property. The proposed MPRB model provides a more analytical and accurate method to predict the performance characteristics such as deformation capability, stiffness variation, as well as error motions of complaint mechanisms and offers a new look into the design and optimization of beam-based compliant mechanisms.
Doina Pisla, Paul Tucan, Bogdan Gherman, Nicolae Crisan, Iulia Andras, Calin Vaida, and Nicolae Plitea
Mech. Sci., 8, 195–213,Short summary
The paper presents a parallel robot designed to manipulate the equipment of a prostate biopsy procedure (an ultrasound probe and biopsy needle). Inverse and forward kinematic models are presented along with the workspace and singularities of the robot. Using the experimental model, tests were performed and an accuracy of 1–2 mm was achieved. A fusion system between an MRI and an ultrasound image (from an endorectal probe) was developed to reduce the number of sampling points to a minimum.
Yi Yang, Yaping Tian, Yan Peng, and Huayan Pu
Mech. Sci., 8, 179–193,Short summary
The kinematic chain comprised of SLEs (scissor-like elements) has a wide range of motion, which is of benefit for the mechanism design. In this paper, we create a 2-DOF translational parallel mechanism with SLEs. The translational parallel mechanism is composed by several SLE-Pa (SLE-parallel) legs, which consist of two identical SLE limbs. This kind of mechanism is applied to the design of a passive docking device, and the prototype of one SLE-Pa leg is presented.
Salvador Cardona Foix, Lluïsa Jordi Nebot, and Joan Puig-Ortiz
Mech. Sci., 8, 91–100,Short summary
The mechanisms of one degree of freedom can be dynamically analysed by setting out a single differential equation of motion which variable is the generalized coordinate selected as independent. In front of the use of a set of generalized dependent coordinates to describe the system, the method exposed in this work has the advantage of working with a single variable but leads to complex analytical expressions for the coefficients of the differential equation, even in simple mechanisms.
Mech. Sci., 8, 1–9,
Zirong Luo, Jianzhong Shang, Guowu Wei, and Lei Ren
Mech. Sci., 7, 155–166,Short summary
Inspired by stem cell whereas different from the other robot "cell" or "molecule", a fundamental mechanical stem cell is proposed leading to the development of mechanical cells, bones and a Sarrus-linkage-based muscle. Using the proposed bones and muscles, a bio-inspired modular-based five-degrees-of-freedom robotic arm is developed to show that the stem-cell inspired pure mechanical stem cell has parallels in biology and provides a modular flexible way to build robotic arm and development.
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In this paper, we use the folded section hypothesis to determinate the ratchet tooth root bending stress and provide a normal mathematical model to calculate it. This model has been proved by the finite element analysis method and the ratchet experiment. It is recommended that this model be used to predict the ratchet tooth root bending stress in the ratchet design process.
In this paper, we use the folded section hypothesis to determinate the ratchet tooth root...