Articles | Volume 3, issue 1
Mech. Sci., 3, 15–23, 2012
© Author(s) 2012. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Special issue: Future directions in compliant mechanisms
Research article 28 Mar 2012
Research article | 28 Mar 2012
Building block method: a bottom-up modular synthesis methodology for distributed compliant mechanisms
G. Krishnan et al.
Related subject area
Subject: Mechanisms and Robotics | Techniques and Approaches: SynthesisSynthesis method of two translational compliant mechanisms with redundant actuationReconstruction designs of an early Chinese astronomical clock with a waterwheel steelyard clepsydraMixed synthesis method of motion and path of planar four-bar linkagesGeometric synthesis method of compliant mechanism based on similarity transformation of pole mapsStructural optimization of a new type of lever-assisted gear reducer based on a genetic algorithmHistorical development of water-powered mechanical clocksThe method for synthesis of the contact ratio of noncircular bevel gearsDesign of a 4-DoF (degree of freedom) hybrid-haptic device for laparoscopic surgeryResearch on the influence of air-gap eccentricity on the temperature field of a motorized spindleKinematic synthesis method and eccentricity effects of a Stephenson mechanismDesign and evaluation of a hybrid passive–active knee prosthesis on energy consumptionThickness-utilizing deployable hard stops for origami-based design applicationsA bistable mechanism with linear negative stiffness and large in-plane lateral stiffness: design, modeling and case studiesOn the analysis and design of a fully compliant large stroke slider-crank (rocker) mechanismKinematic analysis and evaluation of a hybrid mechanism for computer assisted bone reduction surgerySynthesis Theory and Optimum Design of Four-bar Linkage with Given Angle ParametersDimensionless design approach to translating flat faced follower mechanism with two-circular-arc camComputer-aided synthesis of spherical and planar 4R linkages for four specified orientationsLaparoscope arm automatic positioning for robot-assisted surgery based on reinforcement learningOrigami fold states: concept and design toolSolution-region-based synthesis approach for selecting optimal four-bar linkages with the Ball–Burmester pointNovel compliant wiper mechanismSolution Region Synthesis Methodology of RCCC Linkages for Four PosesMechatronic design and genetic-algorithm-based MIMO fuzzy control of adjustable-stiffness tendon-driven robot fingerDesign and development of a novel monolithic compliant XY stage with centimeter travel range and high payload capacityModule-based structure design of wheeled mobile robotA self-adjusting stiffness center design for large stroke compliant XY nanomanipulatorsThe design formulae for skew line gear wheel structures oriented to the additive manufacturing technology based on strength analysisAn Algebraic Formulation for the Configuration Transformation of a Class of Reconfigurable Cube MechanismsDesign and Modelling of a Cable-Driven Parallel-Series Hybrid Variable Stiffness Joint Mechanism for RoboticsGeneral design equations for the rotational stiffness, maximal angular deflection and rotational precision of various notch flexure hingesA structure design method for compliant parallel manipulators with actuation isolationConfiguration synthesis of generalized deployable units via group theoryTowards developing product applications of thick origami using the offset panel techniqueA representation of the configurations and evolution of metamorphic mechanismsSynthesis of PR-/RP-chain-based compliant mechanisms – design of applications exploiting fibre reinforced material characteristicsHybrid Position-Force Control of a Cable-Driven Parallel Robot with Experimental EvaluationMonolithic 2 DOF fully compliant space pointing mechanismDesigning hybrid flexure systems and elements using Freedom and Constraint TopologiesType synthesis of freedom and constraint elements for design of flexure mechanismsUnderstanding the drivers for the development of design rules for the synthesis of cylindrical flexures
Shihua Li, Yajie Zhou, Yanxia Shan, Shuang Chen, and Jinhan Han
Mech. Sci., 12, 983–995,Short summary
Based on the freedom and constraint topology approach and atlas approach, a new method for the synthesis of a redundant actuated compliant parallel mechanism is proposed, the synthesis conditions are given, and the synthesis process is formulated. With this proposed method, two new translation redundant actuated compliant parallel mechanisms are synthesized, and some new mechanisms have been synthesized. The degree of freedom analysis verifies the correctness and effectiveness of the method.
Zeng-Hui Hwang, Tsung-Yi Lin, and Hong-Sen Yan
Mech. Sci., 12, 891–911,Short summary
The monk I-Hsing (621–727) was an outstanding astronomer and mathematician during the Tang Dynasty. He was the first person to use scientific methods to measure the length of the meridian. History records that the waterwheel drove his hydromechanical clock, and the time-reporting device could accurately tell the time. Therefore, his hydromechanical clock had a timing function and an escapement regulation device.
Rui Wu, Ruiqin Li, Hailong Liang, and Fengping Ning
Mech. Sci., 12, 443–449,Short summary
A method is developed for planar four-bar linkages to cope with the mixed synthesis of motion and path-generation problems. The developed method selects an optimal combination by using the conic filtering algorithm, which is based on the similar characteristics of the value and direction between the conic and coupler curves in a certain neighborhood. The selected combination is substituted into an equation system of motion synthesis to solve the parameters of the planar four-bar linkages.
Song Lin, Yu Zhang, Hanchao Wang, Jingyu Jiang, and Niels Modler
Mech. Sci., 12, 375–391,Short summary
This paper proposes a novel geometrical approach to compliant mechanism synthesis based on similarity transformation of pole maps. The study demonstrates the feasibility of applying the geometric similarity transformation to the compliant mechanism and then proposes the procedure of synthesis method. In addition, this work illustrates the synthesis method with two examples.
Lei Guo, Zeyu Wang, Yuan Song, Xianjie Shan, and Dongming Gan
Mech. Sci., 12, 333–343,Short summary
In industrial production, the reducer often determines the accuracy of the machine. Designing a reducer with high strength and good accuracy plays an important role in industrial development. In this paper, combined with previous studies, a new type of reducer based on the lever structure is designed, and the performance of the reducer is optimized. Finally, the most appropriate geometric parameters are obtained to ensure the high efficiency of the reducer. It is effective and stable.
Zheng-Hui Hwang, Hong-Sen Yan, and Tsung-Yi Lin
Mech. Sci., 12, 203–219,Short summary
This article examines the historical development of ancient water-powered mechanical clocks. The study begins with a comprehensive analysis and comparison of the different types of ancient clepsydra, their use and development, development of their feedback systems, power systems, and time-reporting systems.
Kan Shi, Shuai Lin, and Yan'an Yao
Mech. Sci., 12, 165–172,
Houssem Saafi, Med Amine Laribi, and Said Zeghloul
Mech. Sci., 12, 155–164,
Xiaohu Li, Jinyu Liu, Cui Li, Jun Hong, and Dongfeng Wang
Mech. Sci., 12, 109–122,Short summary
The temperature distribution of a machine tool spindle is affected by its air gap. The more serious the air gap eccentricity is, the more uneven the temperature field of the spindle is. In the process of machine tool processing, the instability of the spindle temperature field leads to the decline of parts processing quality and unqualified products, which not only wastes materials, but also affects the processing process.
Amandyk Tuleshov, Recep Halicioglu, Azhar Shadymanova, and Moldir Kuatova
Mech. Sci., 12, 1–8,
Xiaoming Wang, Qiaoling Meng, Zhewen Zhang, Jinyue Sun, Jie Yang, and Hongliu Yu
Mech. Sci., 11, 425–436,
David W. Andrews, Spencer P. Magleby, and Larry L. Howell
Mech. Sci., 11, 395–410,Short summary
Thickness-utilizing deployable hard stops (ThUDS) block the motion of a mechanism at a desired position. Designed to reside within the thickness of a design, they can be planar or spatial in nature. Various analyses and design techniques were developed and demonstrated using physical prototypes. ThUDS are able to successfully constrain motion, are able to carry loads, and are useable in various folding applications, including origami-based engineering.
Zhanfeng Zhou, Yongzhuo Gao, Lining Sun, Wei Dong, and Zhijiang Du
Mech. Sci., 11, 75–89,Short summary
This paper proposes a novel type of bistable mechanism with linear negative stiffness and large in-plane lateral stiffness. Then, by connecting the negative-stiffness mechanism in parallel with a positive-stiffness mechanism, a novel quasi-zero stiffness compliant mechanism is developed. It has better axial guidance capability and in-plane lateral anti-interference capability compare to the conventional mechanism. Such mechanism can be used as constant-force mechanism and vibration isolator.
Çağıl Merve Tanık, Engin Tanık, Yiğit Yazıcıoğlu, and Volkan Parlaktaş
Mech. Sci., 11, 29–38,Short summary
A novel fully compliant slider-crank mechanism with no backlash property is presented. Analysis and design approaches for the fully compliant slider-crank mechanism are proposed. A design table displaying stroke, axis drift of the output segment, and critical stresses of compliant segments are presented. Approaches are verified with FEA simulations and experiment.
Sinh Nguyen Phu, Terence Essomba, Irwansyah Idram, and Jiing-Yi Lai
Mech. Sci., 10, 589–604,Short summary
In order to allow healing from severe fractures cases, a new mechanism is proposed for bone reduction surgery. This hybrid architecture is made of a double triangular planar mechanism and a tripod mechanism. Its kinematic and velocity model are computed while considering the compensation of parasitic motions. Kinematic data obtained from medical image of real case are used for simulations. When compared with the standard Steward mechanism, the present mechanism shows larger workspace.
Lairong Yin, Long Huang, Juan Huang, Peng Xu, Xuejun Peng, and Peng Zhang
Mech. Sci., 10, 545–552,Short summary
The optimum design mentioned in the paper was to choose optimum mechanism from the infinite number of mechanism solutions. By imposing constraints, the optimum mechanism solution was straightforwardly identified by the designers. The design data have been obtained and converted into a series of design graphs by the computer program which can be used to synthesize easily four-bar linkages yielding desired straight-line outputs of predetermined position.
Mech. Sci., 10, 497–503,Short summary
Valve mechanisms are needed to control the intake and exhaust processes of today's engines. The valves in this valve mechanism are actuated by machine parts called camshafts. The cams on the camshaft have specially designed profiles for the movement of the valves. Different cam profiles must be created for each engine size and characteristic. In this study, the camshaft design parameters were dimensioned and thus a new design approach that can be used in all cam designs was presented.
Guangming Wang, Hao Zhang, Xiaoyu Li, Jiabo Wang, Xiaohui Zhang, and Guoqiang Fan
Mech. Sci., 10, 309–320,Short summary
We sometimes meet the problem of linkage synthesis for 4 specified orientations. For example, we need to design an automobile seat based on spherical 4R linkage to move the driver to the ground. According to the traditional Burmester theory, most of the linkage solutions have motion defects, which lead to low computational efficiency. In this paper, a program package was developed under Matlab, which can quickly locate the feasible linkage solution under the guidance of solutions map.
Lingtao Yu, Xiaoyan Yu, Xiao Chen, and Fengfeng Zhang
Mech. Sci., 10, 119–131,Short summary
In this paper, the preoperative planning algorithm is proposed, which makes the laparoscope provide a reasonable initial visual field. The algorithm offers significant improvements in planning time and quality for robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. The improved method which combines the preoperative planning algorithm with deep reinforcement learning algorithm is applied to laparoscope arm automatic positioning. The algorithm provides a basis for the robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery.
Alex Avila, Spencer P. Magleby, Robert J. Lang, and Larry L. Howell
Mech. Sci., 10, 91–105,Short summary
Origami is a powerful and elegant tool that can be used by engineers to overcome challenges. The shape of the origami is essential to this. We categorize the shapes (fold states) of origami into seven classifications. This categorization method is supported by analyzing 69 origami-based devices for correlations between the classification and the types of functions they perform. These correlations can be used to design and select origami fold states.
Lairong Yin, Long Huang, Juan Huang, Lei Tian, and Fangyi Li
Mech. Sci., 10, 25–33,Short summary
We present a solution-region-based synthesis approach for selecting optimal four-bar linkages with a Ball-Burmester point. We discuss both general and special cases of the Burmester point that coincide with the Ball point at the pole of the inflection circle. We generate different mechanism property charts by developing mechanism software that enables users to intuitively identify relevant linkage information and select the optimal linkage.
Raşit Karakuş and Engin Tanık
Mech. Sci., 9, 327–336,Short summary
In this study, a compliant wiper mechanism is presented which can be used in land, air, and sea vehicles, particularly the automotive industry. The wiper mechanism is essentially a partially compliant four-bar mechanism. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first compliant wiper mechanism in the literature. After the theoretical calculations, a prototype is manufactured and an experiment is set up. The data obtained from the experimental setup are compared with the theoretical results.
Jianyou Han and Yang Cao
Mech. Sci., 9, 297–305,Short summary
The paper presents a solution region synthesis methodology for RCCC linkages. First, we couple the RC and CC dyads for obtaining all synthesis equations. Then using the solution region theory and Bertini software, all solutions for RCCC linkages can be obtained. The key contribution of this paper is that all solutions of RCCC linkages for four specific poses are obtained. Only one RCCC linkage can be synthesized by the methods published before;
Izzat Al-Darraji, Ali Kılıç, and Sadettin Kapucu
Mech. Sci., 9, 277–296,Short summary
The aim of this study is to integrate suggested control algorithms with a mechatronic design of underactuated adjustable stiffness finger for improving grasping operation. The designed robot finger system has the following main features: (1) preventing damage of objects during contact with phalanges, (2) having firm grasping, (3) adjusting grasped-forces on phalanges by stiffness of joints, and (4) implementing job independently without external control unit.
Shixun Fan, Hua Liu, and Dapeng Fan
Mech. Sci., 9, 161–176,Short summary
This article proposes a novel monolithic compliant spatial parallel XY stage (SPXYS). An important feature of the SPXYS lies in that it can deliver centimeter travel range and sustain large out-of-plane payload while possessing a compact structure, which makes the SPXYS suitable for some special applications such as Ultra-Violet Nanoimprint Lithography and soft-contact lithography.
Zirong Luo, Jianzhong Shang, Guowu Wei, and Lei Ren
Mech. Sci., 9, 103–121,Short summary
A systematic method was proposed for the synthesis and creative design of novel structures that can be used to build wheeled mobile robot. The proposed method has led to 236 new design schemes. Mathematical models and a software platform were developed to provide appropriate and intuitive tools for simulating and evaluating performance of the wheeled robots. Physical prototypes of sample wheeled robots were developed and tested, proving and validating the principle and methodology presented.
Zhiqing Liu, Zhen Zhang, and Peng Yan
Mech. Sci., 9, 41–50,Short summary
It is proposed a novel design method for large stroke XY compliant mechanisms. An important feature of the design lies in it restricts the parasitic rotation by reducing the moment of force instead of increasing the rotational stiffness widely utilized in the literature. It is presented a millimeter stroke XY nanomanipulator with the proposed design based redundant constraint in a case study. The proposed design provides an alternative to reduce the parasitic rotation of XY compliant mechanism.
Yueling Lyu, Yangzhi Chen, and Yifan Lin
Mech. Sci., 8, 369–383,Short summary
In this paper, oriented to the additive manufacturing technology, a skew line gear pair, whose number of the line tooth of the driving line gear is 1, is designed to improve its strength and overall stiffness, to reduce its volume and manufacturing cost.This paper provides a basic theory for the skew line gear pair applied in conventional powered transmission field.
Chin-Hsing Kuo, Jyun-Wei Su, and Lin-Chi Wu
Mech. Sci., 8, 101–109,Short summary
This paper investigates a special cube-connected toy that can be reconfigured into several different structures by hand operation. The reconfiguration of the toy is formulated by using an exclusive mathematic modeling through which the physical reconfiguration of the toy can be expressed and manipulated in an algebraic consideration. This research is an example of how mathematics can be applied to study the reconfiguration of mechanisms and mechanical structures.
Cihat Bora Yigit and Pinar Boyraz
Mech. Sci., 8, 65–77,Short summary
A new joint mechanism design is presented in this study which has a potential use in robotics, particularly in humanoid robot designs, because of its variable stiffness characteristics, lightweight and remotely-actuated structure. A helical spring inside the mechanism brings compliance which increases the safety. The spring is analyzed with a method proposed in the paper and verified by FEM. The kinematic and the dynamic models are obtained and experimentally validated.
Sebastian Linß, Philipp Schorr, and Lena Zentner
Mech. Sci., 8, 29–49,Short summary
Notch flexure hinges are often used as revolute joints in high-precise compliant mechanisms. Therefore, this paper presents design equations for the calculation of the rotational stiffness, maximal angular elastic deflection and rotational precision of various notch flexure hinges in dependence of the hinge parameters and the load. Four flexure hinge contours are investigated, the semi-circular, the corner-filleted, the elliptical, and the recently introduced bi-quadratic polynomial contour.
Guangbo Hao and Xianwen Kong
Mech. Sci., 7, 247–253,Short summary
This paper proposes a general method for the design of compliant parallel robots that can be actively controlled by linear actuators. This method firstly designs an original robot with desired mobility and then adds actuation legs in an appropriate way. Analytical modelling has been carried out to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the method.
Tuanjie Li, Jie Jiang, Hangjia Dong, and Lei Zhang
Mech. Sci., 7, 201–208,
Michael R. Morgan, Robert J. Lang, Spencer P. Magleby, and Larry L. Howell
Mech. Sci., 7, 69–77,Short summary
The offset panel technique (OPT) is a method which accommodates for the use of thick materials in origami models and preserves both the range of motion and the kinematics. This work explores new possibilities for origami-based product applications presented by the OPT. Examples are included to illustrate some of the capabilities of the OPT, including the use of various materials in a design and manipulation of panel geometry resulting in increased stiffness and strength in the design.
W. Zhang, X. Ding, and J. Liu
Mech. Sci., 7, 39–47,Short summary
The paper introduces a comprehensive symbolic matrix representation for characterizing the topology of a metamorphic mechanism using general information concerning links and joints. Operations on the matrices of the adjacent configuration mechanisms are defined to construct an origin matrix and joint variation matrices. The representation of the configurations and evolution of metamorphic Mechanisms provides a foundation for the analysis and synthesis of novel metamorphic mechanisms.
U. Hanke, E.-C. Lovasz, M. Zichner, N. Modler, A. Comsa, and K.-H. Modler
Mech. Sci., 6, 155–161,
W. Kraus, P. Miermeister, V. Schmidt, and A. Pott
Mech. Sci., 6, 119–125,
E. G. Merriam, J. E. Jones, S. P. Magleby, and L. L. Howell
Mech. Sci., 4, 381–390,
J. B. Hopkins
Mech. Sci., 4, 319–331,
H.-J. Su and C. Yue
Mech. Sci., 4, 263–277,
M. J. Telleria and M. L. Culpepper
Mech. Sci., 3, 25–32,
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